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Table 2 Categorised diagnosis, surgical findings, procedures and complications of the operated horses

From: Long-term follow-up on recovery, return to use and sporting activity: a retrospective study of 236 operated colic horses in Finland (2006–2012)

Diagnosis category (n = 236) Total %
Small intestine
 Strangulating displacement 52 22.0
 Simple obstruction 8 3.4
Large intestine
 Non-strangulating displacement and obstruction 55 23.3
 Non-strangulating displacement 33 14.0
 Strangulating displacement and obstruction 27 11.4
 Simple obstruction 26 11.0
 Strangulating displacement 21 8.9
Other
 Anterior enteritis 5 2.1
 Gastric/bowel perforation with no other findings 5 2.1
 Primary gas accumulation 4 1.7
Surgical findingsa (n = 236) Small intestine Caecum Colon Small colon Total
Displacement of large intestine 136 136 (57.6%)
 Right dorsal displacement 49 49
 Other displacement    36   36
 Flexion, large intestine 27 27
 Left dorsal displacement 24 24
Intestinal herniation 32 32 (13.6%)
 Foramen epiploicum 13 13
 Inguinal 10 10
 Other 9 9
Sand accumulations 28 28 (11.9%)
Mesenterial anomaly 17 1 18 (7.6%)
Ruptured bowel 11 11 (4.7%)
Lipoma 10 10 (4.2%)
Foreign objects 3 3 (1.3%)
Adhesions 1 1 2 (0.8%)
Roundworm 1 1 (0.4%)
Surgical proceduresa (n = 236) Small intestine Caecum Colon Small colon Total
Enterotomy 2 117 119 (50.4%)
Gas removalb NI NI NI NI 95 (40.3%)
Resection 17 1 18 (7.6%)
Postsurgical complications Total %
Short-term (n = 195)
 Reflux/ileus 53 27.2
 Peritonitis 14 7.2
 Re-laparotomyc 11 5.6
 Incisional dehiscence 4 2.1
 Laminitis 3 1.5
 Cardiac failure 2 1.0
 Liver failure and coagulopathy 1 0.5
Long-term: (n = 135)
 Colic episodes in 8y10mo 52 38.5
 Colic in the first year postop 27 20.0
 Only one colic episode 21 15.6
 Re-laparotomy due to colic 3 2.2
 Colic episodes/horse year 0.18  
 Surgical site infection SSI 39 28.9
 Incisional hernia 15 11.1
  1. Horses (n = 236) operated for colic between 2006 and 2012 in University of Helsinki, Equine Teaching Hospital, Finland
  2. a One horse may have had more than one finding or procedure, therefore the listed findings and procedures do not exclude each other
  3. b Segment of intestine: NI no information
  4. c Re-laparotomy during hospitalization due to continuous pain, colic, reflux, or incisional dehiscence