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Table 3 Back-transformed least square means (LS means) for rein tension in trot (logarithm transformation, in N) from multivariable modeling (data from 6 riders and 18 horses, n = 37,168 data points/368 normalised strides)

From: Stride-related rein tension patterns in walk and trot in the ridden horse

Variable Category LS mean 95 % CI Group Significant within-category
P value
Turn Turn L 37 (27, 51) <0.0001 c    
  Turn R 29 (22, 38)    b   
  BL 36 (26, 50)   c b   
Corner Corner L 39 (28, 54) 0.0003 c    
  Corner R 34 (24, 48)    b   
  BL 29 (22, 38)   c b   
Lateral movements Leg-yield L 28 (21, 37) 0.001 a    
  Leg-yield R 33 (23, 46)    a   
  Half-pass L 33 (23, 46)      
  Half-pass R 32 (22, 45)     b  
  Shoulder-in L 40 (28, 58)      b
  Shoulder-in R 38 (27, 53)      
  BL 34 (24, 47)   a a b b
Seat Rising 28 (21, 39) <0.0001 c    
  Sitting 40 (29, 54)   c    
Lengthening Lengthening 28 (22, 36) 0.01 a    
  BL 40 (27, 61)   a    
Nose direction In 32 (23, 43) 0.0001 b    
  Out 36 (26, 49)   b    
Rein Left 33 (25, 45) 0.01 a    
  Right 34 (25, 46)   a    
Horse level Advanced 45 (30, 68) 0.01 a b   
  Medium 28 (20, 41)   a    
  Young horse 38 (26, 56)     b  
  Basic 26 (19, 37)    b b  
  1. The model also contained the fixed effects of stride percentage (P < 0.0001) and its interaction with rein (P < 0.0001). If pair-wise comparisons within a variable were associated with P < 0.0001 this is marked with ‘c’, if 0.01 < P ≥ 0.0001 then ‘b’ and if P < 0.01 then ‘a’, these letters are indicated in both categories. For lateral movements only comparisons to baseline (B) and within the same type of movements were performed (e.g. half-pass left (L) and right (R) were not significantly different and the comparison is therefore not shown)