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Table 1 Definition of teratogenic lesions in the central nervous, muscle and skeletal systems and their association with intrauterine infection with bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV), Schmallenberg virus (SBV), blue tongue virus (BTV), Akabane virus (AKAV), or Aino virus (AV)

From: Virus-induced congenital malformations in cattle

Lesion Definition BVDV SBV BTV AKAV/AV
Hydranencephaly Extensive loss of cerebral tissue with replacement by clear fluid × × × ×
Porencephaly Cystic fluid filled cavities in the brain tissue × × × ×
Hydrocephalus Dilation of the lateral ventricles by cerebrospinal fluid × × ×  
Microencephaly Reduced size of the cerebrum × × × ×
Cerebellar hypoplasia Reduced size of the cerebellum × × ×  
Kyphosis Dorsal vertebral column curvature   ×   
Lordosis Ventral vertebral column curvature   ×   
Scoliosis Lateral vertebral column curvature   ×   
Torticollis Twisted cervical vertebral column curvature   ×   
Arthrogryposis Joint contraction of the limbs   ×   ×