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Table 3 Time (minutes) elapsed between the end of S-ketamine administration and the occurrence of significant events

From: Clinical and pharmacokinetic evaluation of S-ketamine for intravenous general anaesthesia in horses undergoing field castration

  Group 1 Group 2
Parameters Median (IQR) Range [Min-Max] Median (IQR) Range [Min-Max]
T_palpebral 14 (10.5–14.7) [8–20] 10 (9–16) [7–20]
T_surgery 15 (13–16.5) [11–18.6] 18.6 (15–19.8) [14.9–23]
T_movement 25 (22.5–29.5) [16.2–41.2] 12.6 (11.5–14.5) [10.5–17]
T_sternal 28.8 (26–34.2) [20–42.7] 30 (26.9–36) [24–39.2]
T_standing 32.6 (26–37.2) [20–49] 32.9 (30.6–39) [27–40]
  1. “Group 1” (n = 20) horses that received a single injection of S-ketamine.
  2. “Group 2” (n = 7) horses that received additional injection(s) of S-ketamine during the procedure.
  3. T_palpebral: Time from anaesthesia induction until appearance of a brisk palpebral reflex; T_surgery: Time from anaesthesia induction until termination of the surgical procedure; T_movement: Time from anaesthesia induction until appearance of first movement; T_sternal: Time from anaesthesia induction until return to sternal position; T_standing: Time from anaesthesia induction until return to standing position.