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Table 4 Causes of dystocia in bitches needing veterinary treatment during more than one of the whelpings included in this study. (n = 7)

From: A survey of dystocia in the Boxer breed

  Whelping no. 1 Whelping no. 2 Whelping no. 3
Bitch no. 1 Haemorrhage Primary uterine inertia Primary uterine inertia
Bitch no. 2 Primary uterine inertia Primary uterine inertia  
Bitch no. 3 Fetal obstruction Primary uterine inertia  
Bitch no. 4 Oversized fetus Primary uterine inertia  
Bitch no. 5 Fetal malposition Primary uterine inertia  
Bitch no. 6 Fetal malposition Fetal malposition  
Bitch no. 7 Obstructed birth canal Obstructed birth canal