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Table 1 Classification of dystocias (n = 70)

From: A survey of dystocia in the Boxer breed

Cause of the dystocia Number of whelpings Dystocias (%)
Maternal dystocias 48 68.6
Primary uterine inertia 42 60.0
   Incomplete uterine inertia 33 47.1
   Complete uterine inertia 8 11.4
   Non-classifiable primary uterine inertia 1 1.4
Obstruction of the uterine horn (the same bitch twice) 2 2.9
Uterine horn torsion 1 1.4
Placental separation/green discharge 1 1.4
Internal haemorrhage 1 1.4
Bitch accumulating too much body fluid before parturition 1 1.4
Fetal causes 20 28.6
Malposition 18 25.7
Fetal oversize 2 2.9
   Malformation (fetal duplication) 1 1.4
Unknown cause 2 2.9
Obstruction of pup, for unknown reasons 2 2.9